Iryna Shakhova

Kamianets-Podilskyi Ivan Ohiienko National University

Scientific Supervisor: PhD Svider I.A.



Стаття присвячена поняттю «метафора», виділяючи її основні характеристики. Наведено класифікацію метафор та їх особливості. Проаналізовано метафори як фактор політичної комунікації.

Ключові слова: метафора, політична комунікація, класифікація метафор.

The political system cannot be imagined without political communication. Political communication is a phenomenon inherent to all countries in the world and it is constantly changing due to global processes of political modernization, progress in information technology, the emergence of new mass media, and the formation of a common information space. Socio-political changes are impossible without an effective exchange of information between elements of the political system.

It is very difficult to give a definition of political communication, since this concept is constantly changing under the influence of new socio-political processes and development trends.

A Ukrainian researcher Bebyk V. M. calls political communication the process of transferring political information that circulates from one part of the political system to another, between political and social systems, as well as between social groups and individuals [1, p.156].

Metaphor is a very popular phenomenon in modern political communication. It gives expressiveness, emotionality, which somehow affect the reader. The metaphor is interpreted in the process of speech activity until it has an association during its perception. According to Telia V. M. the metaphor is a model that performs the same function in the language as a word-formation model, but more complex and moreover such one that operates in a hidden, non-standard way [4, p.191].

There are various classifications that are covered by semantic and structural-grammatical criteria. Nowadays in linguostylistics a number of typologies of metaphors are known and there are such classifications:

1) according to the morphological manifestation of the main component of the metaphor: the noun, adjective, verbal;

2) according to the structure: simple (one-component), complex (multicomponent);

3) according to the function: comparison, opposition, riddle, nomination, basic metaphor, attribution of features, discovery;

4) due to belonging to the systems of language and speech: visual (or erased, dead, extinct, linguistic), author’s (figurative, occasional, speech);

5) according to semantics there are anthropomethaphors (personification, prosopopoeia, personification), zoometaphors, botanomethaphors (or biomethaphors), metaphor-objectification of signs and metaphor-synesthesia (sensory metaphors)

6) due to the main component of the metaphor for a certain lexical-thematic group, etc. [2, p.224].

Metaphors can vary in structure, features, by classes of comparison or types, but one thing unites them: to accurately highlight the qualities and features of a particular object in order to convey to the recipient detailed information with the highlighted features and properties. Metaphor is a very popular phenomenon in modern media. It gives expression expressiveness, emotionality, which somehow affects the reader.

Metaphors are widely used in political speeches and arguments. They serve as means of inclining the audience to make a decision, motivating the audience to behave in a way that speaker wants [5, p.190].

To create a political metaphor you need to be aware of modern sociological research, political and economic situation, to have an idea of the subculture of their future readers, their standard of living. Otherwise, there will be no effectiveness from it. The role of metaphor in political discourse is focused on the estimation parameter, figurativeness of the metaphorical statement which is subordinated to the task of conveying the emotionally-evaluative attitude of the subject of the speech to the interpreted political reality. In politics, metaphor is the main supplier of alternatives for solving of problematic situations.

Due to the differences between the metaphorical systems that exist in the respective languages the translation of the metaphor is a complicated task. For example, metaphorical images, typical of English, are often absent in Ukrainian and vice versa. Therefore, it is not always possible to simply transfer metaphors from Ukrainian to English or vice versa. In this regard, periodically there is a need to change the metaphorical image. This replacement helps to maintain the level of expression of the source text and make the translation more idiomatic [6, p.1].

Exploring the political metaphor as a factor in political culture, we should note that scientists distinguish the following types of metaphors in the language of political discourse: metaphors of size, metaphors of personal superiority, metaphor of distance, metaphor subordination and metaphor of choice [3, p.260].

Metaphors fulfill the emotional and evaluative function, act as a successful means of influencing the audience, thereby causing an emotionally-evaluative reaction of the addressee. It should be also noted that the political metaphor becomes more and more manageable. Thus, the metaphor, by retransmitting the properties and features of real-life objects into political phenomena, creates in the minds of people images and constructs that become patterns in their political views and behavior.


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  2. ЄщенкоТ. А. Семантико-стилістичні типи метафор: теоретичний аспект: Донецький вісник Наукового товариства ім. Шевченка. Т.18. Донецьк : Український культурологічний центр, 2010. 224-240 с.
  3. ЗарецкаяЕ. Н. Риторика. Теория и практика речевой комуникации. Москва : Дело, 2002. 480 с.
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